Three days after the armistice between Germany and the Allies, fighting ends in East Africa. General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck agrees a cease-fire on hearing of Germany’s surrender.
The Austro-Hungarian Kaiser Charles I abdicates, marking the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The German Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and the Weimar Republic is proclaimed, marking the end of the German Empire.
General Wilhelm Groener replaces General Erich Ludendorff as Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg’s deputy.
Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig issues his ‘Special Order of the Day’, often known as his ‘Backs to the Wall’ communiqué, calling on Allied troops to stand firm against the German Spring Offensive.
French Marshal Ferdinand Foch is appointed Supreme Commander of all Allied forces in response to the German Spring Offensive.
US President Woodrow Wilson publishes his ‘Fourteen Points’ outlining a post-war world based on free trade, open diplomacy, democracy and self-determination.
British Empire forces launch a successful offensive against the Ottomans in Palestine, culminating in General Edmund Allenby’s entry into the city of Jerusalem.
General Armando Diaz replaces General Luigi Cadorna as Commander-in-Chief of the Italian Army.
Georges Clemenceau replaces Paul Painlevé as French Prime Minister.
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando succeeds Paolo Boselli as Italian Prime Minister.
Petty Officer Walter Yeo, badly burned during the Battle of Jutland (1916) on HMS ‘Warspite’, becomes the first person to undergo advanced plastic surgery when he is treated by Sir Harold Gillies.
King George V changes the Royal Family’s name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the less German-sounding Windsor.
Arab rebels led by Colonel TE Lawrence (also known as Lawrence of Arabia) seize the Ottoman port of Aqaba.
US Army doctor, Captain Oswald Robertson, sets up the first blood bank on the Western Front.
General Philippe Pétain replaces General Robert Nivelle as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army.
The Second Battle of the Aisne (or the Nivelle Offensive) ends in disaster for the French Army and its commander General Robert Nivelle.
The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) arrives on the Western Front, under the command of Assistant Controller Helen Gwynne Vaughan.
The Russian Tsar Nicholas II abdicates. A provisional government is appointed.
General Arz von Straussenberg replaces General Conrad von Hötzendorf as Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff.
General Robert Nivelle replaces General Joseph Joffre as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army.
David Lloyd George replaces Herbert Asquith as British Prime Minister.
The Austro-Hungarian Emperor Francis Joseph I is succeeded by Charles I.
General Paul von Hindenburg replaces General Erich von Falkenhayn as German Chief of Staff.
Field Marshal Lord Kitchener drowns when HMS ‘Hampshire’ is sunk by a German mine off the Orkney Islands while bound for Russia.
Major Lawrence Robertson of the Canadian Army performs one of the earliest blood transfusions on the Western Front.
Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig replaces Field Marshal Sir John French as commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF).
The Russian Tsar Nicholas II replaces Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolayevich as Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army.
Pope Benedict XV appeals to all governments to cease hostilities.
Scottish physiologist John Scott Haldane invents the veil respirator, the first British gas mask.
The introduction of the Thomas splint, named after the Welsh surgeon Hugh Owen Thomas, drastically cuts the numbers of British soldiers dying from broken femurs.
The ruler of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mehmed V, declares holy war on the Allies.
General Erich von Falkenhayn replaces General Helmuth von Moltke the Younger as German Chief of Staff.
Pro-British South African forces, under the command of General Louis Botha and General Jan Smuts, invade German South-West Africa (now Namibia).
Field Marshal Sir John French’s British Expeditionary Force (BEF) arrives in France.
The British Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, calls for 100,000 volunteers for his ‘New Armies’.
Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, addresses Parliament on the war in Europe and outlines the pros and cons of a British intervention.
The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, is assassinated by a Bosnian Serb in Sarajevo. The Austro-Hungarians blame the Serbs and seek revenge.