The Treaty of Lausanne is signed by the Allies and Turkey, the successor state to the Ottoman Empire. It supersedes the failed Treaty of Sèvres and offically ends the First World War.
The Treaty of Sèvres is signed by the Allies and the Ottoman Empire. The treaty is not recognised by the Turkish national movement, which considers the Constantinople (now Istanbul) government illegitimate.
The Treaty of Trianon is signed by the Allies and newly-independent Hungary.
The first meeting of the League of Nations is held in London.
The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine is signed by the Allies and Bulgaria.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye is signed by the Allies and newly-independent Austria.
The Treaty of Versailles is signed by the Allies and Germany.
At the Paris Peace Conference a proposal to create the League of Nations, an open diplomatic forum, is accepted.
A peace conference opens in Paris to negotiate treaties between the Allies and the defeated Central Powers. Many view the terms of the treaties as excessively punitive.
Yugoslavia is formed by merging Serbia with several territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Czechoslovakia is formed by merging several territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
At 6.00am Germany signs an armistice with the Allies at Compiègne in northern France. Fighting on the Western Front ceases at 11.00am.
The Austro-Hungarian Kaiser Charles I abdicates, marking the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The German Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and the Weimar Republic is proclaimed, marking the end of the German Empire.
The Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies.
General Wilhelm Groener replaces General Erich Ludendorff as Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg’s deputy.
French Marshal Ferdinand Foch is appointed Supreme Commander of all Allied forces in response to the German Spring Offensive.
Leon Trotsky signs a punitive peace treaty with Germany on behalf of Bolshevik Russia.
The Representation of the People Act 1918 is given Royal Assent, giving the vote to women over 30.
US President Woodrow Wilson publishes his ‘Fourteen Points’ outlining a post-war world based on free trade, open diplomacy, democracy and self-determination.
The Germans agree an armistice with Bolshevik Russia.
General Armando Diaz replaces General Luigi Cadorna as Commander-in-Chief of the Italian Army.
The Bolsheviks seize power in Russia during the October Revolution.
The Allies agree to establish a Supreme War Council at Versailles.
Georges Clemenceau replaces Paul Painlevé as French Prime Minister.
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando succeeds Paolo Boselli as Italian Prime Minister.
King George V changes the Royal Family’s name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the less German-sounding Windsor.
General Philippe Pétain replaces General Robert Nivelle as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army.
The Russian Tsar Nicholas II abdicates. A provisional government is appointed.
General Arz von Straussenberg replaces General Conrad von Hötzendorf as Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff.
General Robert Nivelle replaces General Joseph Joffre as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army.
David Lloyd George replaces Herbert Asquith as British Prime Minister.
The Austro-Hungarian Emperor Francis Joseph I is succeeded by Charles I.
General Paul von Hindenburg replaces General Erich von Falkenhayn as German Chief of Staff.
Romania enters the war on the Allied side, but is defeated within a few weeks.
Irish Republicans mount an unsuccessful rising in Dublin against British rule in Ireland.
Following the seizure of German ships in Lisbon, Germany declares war on Britain’s ally Portugal.
The Military Service Act comes into force in the United Kingdom. Men from 18 to 41 years old are liable to be called up for Army service.
The Russian Tsar Nicholas II replaces Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolayevich as Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army.
The British liner ‘Lusitania‘ is sunk off the south coast of Ireland by a German U-boat. The loss of over 120 American lives causes a storm of protest in the United States.
The Allies offer Italy territorial gains in any post-war settlement in return for their support.
The ruler of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mehmed V, declares holy war on the Allies.
A Boer rebellion, led by General Manie Maritz against South Africa’s support for Britain and its invasion of German South-West Africa, is eventually suppressed.
General Erich von Falkenhayn replaces General Helmuth von Moltke the Younger as German Chief of Staff.
The British Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, calls for 100,000 volunteers for his ‘New Armies’.
The Ottomans close the Dardanelles Strait, a shipping route linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
Britain declares war on Germany following the latter’s violation of the Treaty of London (1839), which guaranteed Belgian neutrality.
Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, addresses Parliament on the war in Europe and outlines the pros and cons of a British intervention.
Germany declares war on France (an ally of Russia) and neutral Belgium. The Germans’ Schlieffen Plan is based on a quick strike against France while Russia is slowly mobilising.
Germany and the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey) sign a secret alliance treaty aimed against Russia.
Germany warns Russia to cease mobilisation despite the latter’s claim that this is only aimed against the Austro-Hungarians.
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia mobilises in support of its Serb ally.
Austria-Hungary sends Serbia an impossible ultimatum, which is rejected.
Germany assures Austria-Hungary of its support against Russia should the latter oppose Austria’s planned attack on Serbia.
The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, is assassinated by a Bosnian Serb in Sarajevo. The Austro-Hungarians blame the Serbs and seek revenge.